手机客户端 |签到 |在线客服 |设为首页 |收藏本站 |推广赚贝壳

我要航海网

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

用新浪微博连接

一步搞定

查看: 428|回复: 1
收起左侧

航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim

[复制链接]
发表于 2015-10-26 22:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Points of Sail and Sail Trim

航行方向与帆的调整

翻译---刘成义Jerry
Points of Sail by Wind Direction航行方向取决于方向
different,relative,points,refers,terms 航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim

© Tom Lochhaas.
“Point of sail” refers to the angle of the sailboat to the directionfrom which the wind is blowing. Different terms are used for the differentpoints of sail, and the sails must be trimmed into different positions fordifferent points of sail.

航行方向取决于船头方向与风吹来的方向间的夹角。不同的航行方向有不同的定义。需要根据航行方向调整船帆的位置。

Consider this diagram,which shows the basic points of sail for different boat directions relative tothe wind. Here, the wind is blowing from the top of the diagram (think of it asnorth).

上图展示了几种基本的航行方向 – 相对于风向的船头方向。图中风从图的上面吹来(假定为正北方向)。

A sailboat sailing closeto the wind on either side (toward the northwest or northeast) is close hauled.Sailing directly across the wind (due west or due east) is called a beam reach.Off the wind (to the southwest or southeast) is called a broad reach. Directlydownwind (due south) is called running.

如果船帆靠近风吹来的方向(向东北或者西北),那么称为迎风。如果船帆垂直于风向(向东或者向西),那么称为横风。如果船帆背向风吹来的方向,那么称为顺风。如果正背离风吹来的方向(正南),那么称为正顺风。

Next we’ll look at each of these points of sail and how thesails are trimmed for each.
下面我们讨论各个航行方向下如何调整船帆。

2of5

Close Hauled  侧风行驶
different,relative,points,refers,terms 航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim


Photo © Tom Lochhaas.

Here the sailboat is sailing close hauled, or asclose to the wind direction it can.

此时帆船在逆风航行,或者尽可能的逆风航行。

Most boatscan sail within about 45 to 50 degrees of the wind direction. (No boat can saildirectly into thewind.) Close hauled is also called beating.
Notice that both sailsare pulled in tight, and the boom is centered down the centerline of the boat.The curve of the sails is like the shape of an airplane’s wing, generatinglift—a force that, in combination with the effect of the keel, results in theboat being pulled forward.

大多数帆船可以在风向的45-50度角度内航行(没有帆船可以直接驶入风中)。注意两个帆都已经拉紧,帆杆位于船的中心线下。帆面形状近似于飞机的机翼,由此产生的力与龙骨的作用共同推动船向前航行。

Note that the boat isalso heeling (leaning) to starboard (the right side). Sailing close hauledproduces more heeling than other points of sail.

注意此时帆船也在向右舷倾斜。逆风航行较之其他航行方向倾斜的角度更大。

When close hauled, the jib is trimmed in tight for equal airflowon both sides.

逆风航行时,应调整前帆,使得前帆两侧的风力相等。

3of5
Beam Reach横风
different,relative,points,refers,terms 航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim


Photo © Tom Lochhaas.
In a beam reach, the boat is sailing at a perpendicular angle tothe wind. The wind is coming directly across the beam of the boat.

横风航行时,船垂直于风向航行。风垂直吹过船身。

Notice that the sailsare let out farther in a beam reach than when close hauled. The flow of thewind over the curve of the sail is, again, like air around an airplane’s wing,generating lift to move the boat forward.

注意船帆在横风航行时比逆风时放的更远。帆面依然象飞机机翼一样,风吹过帆面时也同样产生力推动帆船前进。

Note too that the boatheels less than when close hauled.

同时注意,此时帆船倾斜的角度小于逆风航行的角度。

All other factors being equal, beam reach is often the fastestpoint of sail for most sailboats.

其他因素相同时,对于大多数帆船来说,横风航行是航行速度最快的航行方向。

4of5
Broad Reach顺风航行
different,relative,points,refers,terms 航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim


Photo © Tom Lochhaas.
In a broad reach, the boat is sailing far off the wind (but notquite directly downwind). Note that in a broad reach the sails are let muchfarther out. The boom is far out to the side, and the jib loops forward of theforestay.

顺风航行时,帆船顺风吹来的方向航行(不是正背风向)。注意此时船帆放得更远,帆杆远离船舷,前帆在前帆支索前弯曲。

The shape of the sailsis still generating some lift, but as the boat heads farther and farther offthe wind, it is increasingly being pushed forward by the wind from behindrather than being pulled forward by lift.

主帆的形状仍然可以产生推力,但是由于船头偏离方向越来越远。船帆受到的风的推力越来越大 – 大于帆面形状产生的推力。

Note also that the mainsail out to the side is almost directlybehind the jib, in relation to the wind coming from behind. If this boat weresailing directly downwind, the mainsail would block the wind and keep so muchwind from the jib that it would not fill. Most sailors therefore prefer to sailoff the wind in a broad reach rather than directly downwind. A broad reach is faster,and there is less risk of an accidental gybe. A gybe occurs when headeddownwind and a wind shift or gust throws the mainsail across to the other side,stressing the rigging and risking the boom striking someone as it crosses theboat.

同时请注意,位于船舷外的主帆方向几乎位于前帆沿着风向的正后方。如果船此时是正顺风方向航行,甚至主帆会挡住吹到前帆的风,以至前帆不能满帆。很多水手由此倾向于顺风航行,而不是正顺风航行。顺风航行较之正顺风航行更快,而且意外的顺风换舷带来的风险更小。当船向着下风方向航行时,风向改变或者有突然的狂风会迫使主帆从船的一边飘到另外一边。顺风换舷会带动帆杆横扫船面,打到甲板上的人,

5of5

Running Wing on Wing正顺风
different,relative,points,refers,terms 航行方向与帆的调整Points of Sail and Sail Trim


Photo © Tom Lochhaas.
As mentioned on the previous page, it is inefficient to saildirectly downwind with both sails on the same side, because the mainsail willblock the wind from the jib.

如前面所述,正顺风航行时,如果主帆和前帆都在船的同一侧,由于主帆挡住了吹向前帆的风,航行效率并不高。

One way to prevent thisproblem is to run downwind with the sails on opposite sides of the boat tocapture the wind on both sides. This is called sailing wing on wing and isshown in this photo. Here, the main is far out to starboard (the right side)and the jib is far out to port.

一个解决办法是,正顺风航行时,主帆和前帆分别调整到船的两侧,这样两个帆都可以获得动力。这称为‘蝴蝶帆’。如图:此时主帆远离右舷,而前帆远离左舷。

Because it is stilloften difficult to keep both sails full and drawing downwind, especially if theboat is rolling side to side on waves, the jib can be held out to the side witha whisker pole or spinnaker pole. As you can see in this photo, the jib’s outercorner (the clew) is poled to port with a pole mounted to the mast. In a lightwind the wight of the jib may still make it droop or flutter, even when poledout. As you can see in this photo, the leading edge of the jib (the luff) isnot being blown fully forward in this light air.

很难保持两个帆都是满帆,尤其是当船身在波浪中晃动时,前帆,如图中所示,前帆的外角被从主桅杆伸出的撑杆撑起。风力小的时候,即使撑出前帆,前帆的重量仍然可能使帆面下垂或者飘动。如图所示,前帆的前沿在风力小时没有完全被风吹起。

Running downwind isgenerally considered the slowest point of sail.

一般认为,正顺风航行是最慢的航行方向。

Remember that the sails are trimmed differently for each pointof sail.


请牢记,不同航行方向时,船帆的调整方式是不同的。


Here are two apps for Apple devices that can help you learn or teach about pointsof sail.


文章来自外国网站“aboutsport”,翻译文章主要为服务国内帆友,如有侵权,请联系我们删除。
the original articles are from the website "aboutsport". if covering torts, please contact us to delete.

帖子的最近访客查看更多↓




上一篇:法国最牛X的不只有香水!“全能海贼王”Adrena 导航软件大揭秘
下一篇:【科普】航标的用途和分类丨海员之家
航海家游艇俱乐部
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

在线客服|手机客户端|关于我们|小黑屋|推广赚贝壳|改名| 我要航海网

Copyright © 2015-2020 zhai Inc. 51hanghai我要航海网 (http://www.51hanghai.com) All Rights Reserved.

Powered by Luoren!X6( 京ICP备11039791号-2 )

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表