In general, to furl a sail is to roll it up, such as to furl the mainsail on the boom (or into the boom or mast in some contemporary systems). A furling jib rolls up around the forestay using special hardware in a furling system.
The deep vertical section of a sailboat affixed to the bottom of the hull. The keel helps the boat resist the leeward force of the wind and provides stability against excessive heeling.
贴在船体(hull)底部的，垂直方向的部分。龙骨帮助船只抵御背风力(leeward force of the wind)，并稳定过度倾侧。
The depth of a boat in the water, measured from the waterline to the lowest section of the keel.
In nautical usage, scope refers to the ratio of the length of anchor rode to the vertical drop of the anchor (from the boat’s bow to the water bottom). For example, a scope of 7 to 1 means that with a water depth of 17 feet and the boat’s bow 3 feet above the water (total vertical drop of 20 feet), 140 feet of anchor rode would be let out.
在航海领域，scope指的是锚缆与锚的垂直落差（从船头到水底）的长度之比。例如，a scope of 7意味着当水深为17英尺，船头距水面为3英尺时（总共的垂直落差为20英尺），140英尺的锚缆将被放出。
A nautical term for the anchor line, typically made of chain or nylon line or a combination of both. When anchoring, the rode is let out to a predetermined scope.
Definition: A fitting at the top forward section of a boat’s bow used for raising and securing an anchor in place. Called a bow roller because a block at the front end of the fitting rolls as the anchor line comes in or goes out.
Definition: Lee, or leeward, refers to downwind or the downwind side of the boat or sail. The boats sails, for example, are always on the leeward side of the boat. A lee shore is land that is downwind of the boat (and thus is a danger if the boat is blown or drags anchor).
Definition: The control lines on port and starboard that pull the jib sail in or out.
Definition: A wire or metal rod that runs from the bow of a sailboat to the top (or near the top) of the mast to provide support from the front. The backstay provides support from the opposite direction, and the shrouds provide support from each side.
Verb: Luffing refers to a shaking or movement of the leading edge of a sail when it is not in trim. For example, if the sail is let out too far for the wind’s direction, the leading edge may shake or start to blow inward. Tightening up the sheet usually corrects luffing.
Verb: To “luff up” also refers to the act of turning the boat more into the wind, thereby causing the sail to luff. This may be done deliberately, for example, to slow the boat down to prevent crossing the starting line too soon in a sail race.
A usually triangular sail attached to the forestay or headstay of a sailboat.
A line, made of rope or wire with a rope tail, that is used to hoist a sail. The halyard typically rises from the head of the sail to a block at the head of the mast and back down to deck level, from where it is pulled up to raise the sail. Both the mainsail and head sail have separate halyards, as do other sails such as a spinnaker.
A line sewn into the luff and foot of a mainsail, and the luff of a jib sail. The boltrope slides through a groove in the mast, boom, or forestay fitting for hoisting the sail or moving the foot back along the boom.
Any pulley used on a boat. A line passes through the block around the sheave, the central turning wheel, and changes direction. The block shown here redirects a jib sheet from the front of the boat back to the cockpit.
Definition: A device used on all but very small sailboats to provide a mechanical advantage when tightening a line (rope). Winches are typically used to raise the mainsail and to trim in jib sheets. The line is wrapped clockwise around the winch drum and a handle inserted in the top; cranking the handle turns the drum to bring in the line.
Definition: A common knot used in many circumstances on sailboats, such as to tie a loop of line around a piling, stanchion, or any other fixed structure. The bowline is not only strong and secure but is easy to break loose later, even when pulled tight under a load.
A tiller is one way a sailboat's rudder is moved to turn the boat.A long handle, usually made of wood, that attaches to the top of sailboat’s rudder or rudder post to turn the rudder for steering. The boat turns in the direction opposite that in which the tiller is pushed: to turn right (to starboard), push the tiller left (to port). Tillers are more commonly used on smaller sailboats because it can take much force to move the larger rudder of a big boat with a tiller. All sailboats are steered either with a tiller or a wheel.
The term tiller is also used for the steering arm of small outboard engines.
A type of keel on a sailboat that can be raised or lowered from the bottom of the hull. A swing keel is usually long, thin, and heavy. Pivoting on a pin inside the hull, it swings down to provide ballast and resistance against sideways motion of the boat caused by the wind blowing from one side. The advantage of a swing keel is that, with the keel raised, the sailboat can go into shallow water and sits lower on a trailer.
A system used in some trailerable sailboats without a weighted fixed keel. Ballast (weight near the bottom of the boat) is needed to keep the boat upright when the wind pushes the sails over. In a water-ballast boat, a chamber in the bottom of the hull fills with water to provide this ballast. This water can then be emptied when the boat is put on a trailer, to make it lighter for easier trailering.