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帆船术语 -------中英对照

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发表于 2014-4-3 18:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Sailboats and sailing involve many specialized terms that may be unfamiliar to those new to sailing. Here's a glossary of sail terms.

帆船和航行涉及许多帆船新手可能不大熟悉的专有术语。以下是一些帆船术语汇编。

Shank

Shank(锚柄/锚杆)

The long, straight part of an anchor, to which the anchor rode attaches at one end and the fluke(s) at the other end.

锚的长而直的部分,一端连接着锚缆(anchor rode),另一端连接着锚爪(fluke)。

Fluke

Fluke(锚爪)

The pointed part(s) of an anchor that digs into the bottom when the anchor sets

下锚时,锚身上向底部钻动(以提供锚抓力)的尖端部分。

Chartplotter

Chartplotter (海图标绘仪)

An electronic device, or a computer using a GPS sensor and navigational software, that displays the boat’s position on a chart view. Chartplotters can perform many navigational tasks.

一台电子设备,或使用GPS传感器及导航软件的电脑;它在海图上显示出本船所在的位置。海图标绘仪能执行许多种导航任务。

Furl

Furl (收帆)

In general, to furl a sail is to roll it up, such as to furl the mainsail on the boom (or into the boom or mast in some contemporary systems). A furling jib rolls up around the forestay using special hardware in a furling system.

一般来说,furl 一张帆就是将其卷起,比如“卷起在悬臂(boom)或者在某些现代系统中的桅杆(mas)上的主帆”。一个收帆臂(furling jib)使用收帆系统中的特殊硬件设备,环绕着前桅支索(forestay)卷起。

Keel

Keel(龙骨)

The deep vertical section of a sailboat affixed to the bottom of the hull. The keel helps the boat resist the leeward force of the wind and provides stability against excessive heeling.

贴在船体(hull)底部的,垂直方向的部分。龙骨帮助船只抵御背风力(leeward force of the wind),并稳定过度倾侧。

Draft

Draft(吃水深度)

The depth of a boat in the water, measured from the waterline to the lowest section of the keel.

帆船进入水的深度,从水平面到龙骨最低处测量。

Scope

Scope(锚缆长度)

In nautical usage, scope refers to the ratio of the length of anchor rode to the vertical drop of the anchor (from the boat’s bow to the water bottom). For example, a scope of 7 to 1 means that with a water depth of 17 feet and the boat’s bow 3 feet above the water (total vertical drop of 20 feet), 140 feet of anchor rode would be let out.

在航海领域,scope指的是锚缆与锚的垂直落差(从船头到水底)的长度之比。例如,a scope of 7意味着当水深为17英尺,船头距水面为3英尺时(总共的垂直落差为20英尺),140英尺的锚缆将被放出。

Rode

Rode(锚缆)

A nautical term for the anchor line, typically made of chain or nylon line or a combination of both. When anchoring, the rode is let out to a predetermined scope.

锚的缆绳的航海术语,通常由铁链或尼龙绳或两者共同制成。下锚时,锚缆被放出一个预先决定的比例。

Bow Roller

Bow Roller(弓辊)

Definition: A fitting at the top forward section of a boat’s bow used for raising and securing an anchor in place. Called a bow roller because a block at the front end of the fitting rolls as the anchor line comes in or goes out.

船头(bow)上的向前部分的一个配件,用来提升和固定锚的位置。由于锚缆放出或收回时,该装置的前端有滑轮随之滚动,因此被称为“bow roller”。

Holding Ground

Holding Ground(锚地)

When anchoring, holding ground refers to the bottom and its characteristics. For example, “good holding ground” means a sand or mud bottom into which the anchor will set well.

在下锚时,holding ground指的是水底的地面以及它的性质。例如"好的锚地"指的是一块锚容易下稳的沙地或泥地。

Lee

Lee(背风)

Definition: Lee, or leeward, refers to downwind or the downwind side of the boat or sail. The boats sails, for example, are always on the leeward side of the boat. A lee shore is land that is downwind of the boat (and thus is a danger if the boat is blown or drags anchor).

Lee,或Leeward,指的是逆风,或船和帆的逆风一侧。例如,船只总是在背风一侧航行。lee shore(背风岸)指的是在船只背风一侧的陆地(因此如果船只被吹动或锚松动了,就会有危险)。

Pronunciation: loo-ward

leeward发音:loo-ward

Jibsheet

Jibsheet(前帆操控索)

Definition: The control lines on port and starboard that pull the jib sail in or out.

左舷和右舷上用来将前帆拉出或收起的绳索。

Forestay

Forestay(前桅支索)

Definition: A wire or metal rod that runs from the bow of a sailboat to the top (or near the top) of the mast to provide support from the front. The backstay provides support from the opposite direction, and the shrouds provide support from each side.

一根从船头到帆顶(或接近帆顶)的金属丝或钢条,用于从船头提供支撑。backstay(后桅支索)则从相反的方向提供支撑,shrouds(侧翼支索)从两侧提供支撑。

Mainsheet

Mainsheet(主桅帆操纵索)

Definition: The control line that pulls the mainsail in or out.

将主帆卷起或放开的控制索。

Spreader

Spreader(吊具)



Definition: A strut mounted on the mast athwartships to hold out the shrouds, providing a better holding angle for the shrouds.

一个安装于桅杆(mast)上的横向支杆,以撑开侧翼支索,为侧翼支索提供更好的拉力角度。

Sheave

Sheave(滑轮转动轮)

Definition: The pulley wheel that turns inside a block, around which a rope or line passes.

在一个滑轮装置内的被绳子或钢索环绕着的转动的轮子。

Shackle

Shackle(钩环)

Definition: A metal hook-like device that attaches a line to a sail or other fitting, or one fitting to another, often with a screw piece to keep it in place.

金属的钩状物,将绳索连接到帆或其他部件上,或连接两个部件,通常带有螺栓部分来使之固定。

Sail slug

Sail slug(帆塞)



A small device that attaches to the boltrope of the mainsail and moves up and down in the sail groove in the mast, used for hoisting and lowering the mainsail.

一个连接在主帆的帆边绳(boltrope)上的小装置,在桅杆上沿帆槽(sail groove)上下移动,用来悬挂或降低主帆。

Mooring

Mooring(系泊)



An anchor permanently installed in a harbor for mooring a sailboat, typically consisting of the anchor, chain to a mooring ball on the surface, and a pennant to which the boat attaches.

一个永久固定在海港的锚,供系泊一艘船之用。通常包括锚体,连接水面一个系泊浮球的铁链,以及一面供船只插的信号旗。

Luff

Luff

Noun: The luff is the leading edge of a sail. On a mainsail, the luff attaches to the mast. The luff of a head sail, or jib, attaches to the forestay.

名词:luff指的是帆的前缘。在一面主帆上,帆前缘被连接到桅杆上。前帆(head sail或叫jib)的帆前缘连接到前桅支索(forestay)上。

Verb: Luffing refers to a shaking or movement of the leading edge of a sail when it is not in trim. For example, if the sail is let out too far for the wind’s direction, the leading edge may shake or start to blow inward. Tightening up the sheet usually corrects luffing.

动词1:luffing指的是当帆不平整时,帆的前缘的摇动或移动。例如,当帆在风向上被放出太多时,它的前缘可能会抖动或开始向内侧弯,将绳索拉紧通常能矫正之。

Verb: To “luff up” also refers to the act of turning the boat more into the wind, thereby causing the sail to luff. This may be done deliberately, for example, to slow the boat down to prevent crossing the starting line too soon in a sail race.

动词2:"luff up"也指将船调整得更加朝向风,因而使得船帆抖动弯曲的动作。这有可能是蓄意之举,例如在帆船赛中为防止抢跑而将船降速的一种办法。

Jib

Jib(前三角帆)



A usually triangular sail attached to the forestay or headstay of a sailboat.

一面通常是三角形的帆,安装在帆船的前桅支索上。

Halyard

Halyard(升降索)

A line, made of rope or wire with a rope tail, that is used to hoist a sail. The halyard typically rises from the head of the sail to a block at the head of the mast and back down to deck level, from where it is pulled up to raise the sail. Both the mainsail and head sail have separate halyards, as do other sails such as a spinnaker.

一根用来悬挂帆布的绳索,由麻绳或带着麻绳尾巴的钢丝做成。升降索通常从帆的前侧延伸到桅杆顶端,然后下降到甲板平面,在甲板上拉起升降索就能升起船帆。主帆和前三角帆有各自独立的升降索,其他的帆如赛艇大三角帆(spinnaker)也一样。

Boltrope

Boltrope(栓索)

A line sewn into the luff and foot of a mainsail, and the luff of a jib sail. The boltrope slides through a groove in the mast, boom, or forestay fitting for hoisting the sail or moving the foot back along the boom.

在主帆的前缘和底部缝进的一根绳索,在桅杆,悬臂或前桅支索固定装置上的槽内滑动,以提升帆布,或将其底部沿悬臂收回。

Block

Block(滑轮装置)



Any pulley used on a boat. A line passes through the block around the sheave, the central turning wheel, and changes direction. The block shown here redirects a jib sheet from the front of the boat back to the cockpit.

船上用的所有滑轮装置都叫block。一根绳索穿过block,围绕中心的转动轮(sheave),并改变方向。这里显示的滑轮装置将一根前三角帆支索从船头拉回到驾驶舱。

Mainsail

Mainsail(主帆)



The large sail hoisted behind the mast, or main mast when there are more than one, of a sailboat. In a Bermuda-rigged sloop the mainsail has a tall, triangular shape.

在船只桅杆(当多于一根桅杆时,就在主桅杆)后方升起的大帆。在一艘百慕大操纵单桅帆船(Bermuda-rigged sloop )上,主帆的形状是高三角形。

Winch

Winch(绞盘)



Definition: A device used on all but very small sailboats to provide a mechanical advantage when tightening a line (rope). Winches are typically used to raise the mainsail and to trim in jib sheets. The line is wrapped clockwise around the winch drum and a handle inserted in the top; cranking the handle turns the drum to bring in the line.

一个在除了极小的船以外的所有船上使用的装置,用以在拉紧一根绳索时提供机械优势。绞盘通常用来升起主帆,或嵌入前三角帆的帆脚索。绳索以顺时针方向环绕着绞盘鼓,一个手柄从上方插入;拧动手柄使绞盘鼓转动,以收入更多绳索。

Bowline

Bowline(称人结)



Definition: A common knot used in many circumstances on sailboats, such as to tie a loop of line around a piling, stanchion, or any other fixed structure. The bowline is not only strong and secure but is easy to break loose later, even when pulled tight under a load.

在帆船上使用场景广泛的一种绳结,如用于将一股绳索围绕套在木桩,支柱,或任何其他固定结构上。称人结不但牢固,安全,而且之后还容易解开,即使在带着负载力拉紧时也是如此。

Tiller

Tiller(舵柄)



A tiller is one way a sailboat's rudder is moved to turn the boat.A long handle, usually made of wood, that attaches to the top of sailboat’s rudder or rudder post to turn the rudder for steering. The boat turns in the direction opposite that in which the tiller is pushed: to turn right (to starboard), push the tiller left (to port). Tillers are more commonly used on smaller sailboats because it can take much force to move the larger rudder of a big boat with a tiller. All sailboats are steered either with a tiller or a wheel.

舵柄是转动船舵(rudder)来改变船的朝向的一种方式。它是一个长的把手,通常木制,连接在船舵的顶端或后端以便掌舵。船朝着与舵柄被推动的相反的方向转动:若要船转向右舷(starboard),将舵柄向左(port)推。舵柄在小型船只上使用得更广泛,因为对于大船来说转动舵柄来掌舵需要太大力气了。所有的帆船都是由舵柄或舵盘(wheel)来掌舵的。

The term tiller is also used for the steering arm of small outboard engines.

tiller这个术语也用来指舷外发动机的掌舵臂。

Swing Keel

Swing Keel(摇摆龙骨)

A type of keel on a sailboat that can be raised or lowered from the bottom of the hull. A swing keel is usually long, thin, and heavy. Pivoting on a pin inside the hull, it swings down to provide ballast and resistance against sideways motion of the boat caused by the wind blowing from one side. The advantage of a swing keel is that, with the keel raised, the sailboat can go into shallow water and sits lower on a trailer.

帆船上的一种龙骨,可以从船底部(hull)升起或放下。摇摆龙骨通常长,窄,重。它围绕船底的一个钉子旋转,放下时提供压载力,以抵抗由于单侧风导致的船只侧向摆动。摇摆龙骨的优点在于,当龙骨升起时,船只能在浅水航行,并减低在拖车上的高度。

Also Known As: centerboard

它也被称为centerboard。

Water-Ballast System

Water-Ballast System (水压载系统)

A system used in some trailerable sailboats without a weighted fixed keel. Ballast (weight near the bottom of the boat) is needed to keep the boat upright when the wind pushes the sails over. In a water-ballast boat, a chamber in the bottom of the hull fills with water to provide this ballast. This water can then be emptied when the boat is put on a trailer, to make it lighter for easier trailering.

应用于某些可用拖车运输的,没有重固定龙骨的帆船上的一个系统。当风把船帆吹翻时,帆船需要船底部附近的载重(Ballast)来避免帆船。在水压载的帆船上,船底的一个空间蓄满水以提供这种负载。当船被放在拖车上时,这些水可以被放掉,让船更轻,便于拖载。



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